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This page provides a literature overview on articles about interesting topics of cosmetics and dermatology which have been published in specialist journals. The articles deal with skin analysis, active agents as well as details on the composition and use of cosmetic and dermatics. Also medical issues like problem skin, skin barrier and cornification disorders are covered. Please select on the left. The publications are available in full text and can be downloaded as pdf-files. (Remark: Here you find the complete list of publications and patents of Dr Lautenschläger)

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Cancer – adjuvant skin care

Cancer treatments are very stressful for the psyche and body. The skin is also sometimes severely affected and causes problems for those affected. You can provide valuable help here with the right skin care before and after treatment.

Category: problem skin

How competitive are beauty salons?

Can beauty salons survive in an environment of constant change in the future? This question is asked above all by those who are about to make the decision to become self-employed. What answers can be given to them?

Category: beauty institutes

Enzymes and fermentation

Enzymes play a central role in our lives – not only within our bodies, but also on the surface of our skin and in our diet. Bacterial and fungal cultures with their enzymes have been used for food fermentation since time immemorial. Can skincare benefit from this?

Category: special actives

Nuts and nut-like fruits

Apple, nut and almond kernel – don't worry, Father Christmas isn't knocking, but it's about an insight into kernel-like compositions that play a role in food and skin care.

Category: ingredients

The green laboratory

There is a lot of discussion about sustainability. First and foremost, people think of products and their environmental compatibility, and more recently also their climate compatibility and the minimisation of their legacies – in other words, waste. But is that all? We have taken a closer look at one area and want to go into detail on the basis of this. It's about research and development, where it all begins.

Category: beauty institutes

Sodium and potassium

Metals are mostly solid matter. It is quite different with the light metals sodium and potassium. You don't even see them, and yet they are present everywhere – even in your own body. Since the beginnings of life in the primordial oceans, they have always been present.

Category: ingredients

Phytohormones – border crossers in cosmetics

Plant isoflavones – also known as phytohormones – are exogenous organic compounds and are particularly used in anti-ageing skin care.

Category: special actives

Is titanium dioxide without alternative?

Titanium dioxide was banned in food in August 2022 because a carcinogenic effect cannot be completely ruled out. Since then, substitutes for the pigment have been under discussion, among others in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and emulsion paints. In sunscreens, titanium dioxide still plays a dominant role as an alternative to the chemical-synthetic filters.

Category: ingredients

Strong protectors – stabilising antioxidants

Antioxidants protect the skin from free radicals. To do this, they should be as stable as possible. Read here how this can be implemented in the development of topical preparations.

Category: special actives

Biopolymer – Hyaluronic acid in skin care

It is found in the eyes, skin and joints and is generally found in many tissues of the human body. In total, each of us contains about 15 g of this disaccharide polymer, which can bind many times its own weight in water: Hyaluronic acid – it is indispensable especially in the cosmetics industry.

Category: special actives

Gold and silver

Precious metals radiate eternity. Who would not like to immortalise themselves with gold and silver? Even the ancient cultures used the metals not only as jewellery, but also as burial objects. We can still admire much of this today in museums.

Category: ingredients

Cooperation is everything – cosmetics and the skin microbiome

Microorganisms perform extensive metabolic feats that depend on their individual enzyme equipment. They absorb substances, digest them and produce others, which they store or release to the outside world.

Category: skin protection

Three times active against wrinkles

Cosmetic active ingredients have multiple functions. Taken together, the spectrum of activities corresponds to the typical set of instruments against premature skin ageing, i.e., anti-aging. It can be divided into preventive protective, regenerative and anti-inflammatory activities. Sustainability plays an increasingly important role here.

Category: anti-aging

Science: Skin Cleansing

Before now the cleansing of the skin and particularly of the facial skin was a quite simple act requiring water and maybe a bar of soap. Today it has developed into a scientific procedure, which is almost incomprehensible without basic knowledge in chemistry, physics and microbiology.

Category: products

Corneotherapy – Quo vadis?

Strengthening and maintaining the health of the stratum corneum is the goal of corneotherapy. What is important in the material composition, which application possibilities there are and why it is still not mainstream, you can find out here.

Category: problem skin

Anti-aging products and treatments under the microscope

When it comes to anti-aging products, the question arises as to what has a superficial, temporary, substantial or lasting effect against signs of aging in the skin. Keeping an overview has become difficult. Find out the most important facts, effective treatment methods and sustainable active ingredients here.

Category: anti-aging

Sustainable skin care

Sustainability in cosmetics incorporates findings from dermatology and physiology. Cosmetic preparations with this concept are increasingly used for skin care accompanying indications – without the side effects of conventional medicines.

Category: beauty institutes

Cosmetic preparations against dry and tired eyes

In times of pandemics and mask-wearing, the eyes have become especially important. They radiate curiosity, conviction, enthusiasm, joy, sadness, stress – and fatigue.

Category: products

Titanium dioxide – the whitener

Until now, the use of titanium dioxide as an excipient in food, medicines, cosmetics and many other articles of daily life was considered harmless to health. But for some time now, concerns and restrictions have been increasing. We have compiled the background information for you.

Category: ingredients

Enjoyment without regret: Light damage – prevention & regeneration

In moderate doses, sunlight stimulates our organism and psyche. In too high doses, UV radiation causes the skin to age prematurely and light damage to occur. Read below how these can be avoided or treated.

Category: skin protection

Problem skin – relapses in skin care and dermatology – how to handle them?

In medical terminology, the expression relapse describes the reoccurrence of a disease or a symptom after an already finished treatment. Relapses also occur in the dermatological or cosmetic context when disorders reappear after a successful treatment phase. Find out here what causes the relapses and for which indications the accompanying skin care makes sense.

Category: problem skin

Regional and sustainable – hemp, evening primrose, marigold & co.

Exotic natural substances are still the bestsellers in cosmetics. But in terms of effectiveness, domestic extracts, essential and fatty oils do not have to hide. The overview shows examples of which natural substances are not only ecological, but also sustainable in terms of treatments.

Category: ingredients

Product advertising – just not too creative

Advertising stimulates business. And digitalisation opens up many opportunities to disseminate sales-promoting information cost-effectively alongside print media. However, this is often overlooked: Not everything is allowed – this also applies to the cosmetics industry.

Category: beauty institutes

Minimalist and effective

Cosmetic products reduced to the essentials: The trend of skin minimalism follows the assumption that even in cosmetics, the maximum is by no means always the best. Neither for the skin nor for the environment.

Category: beauty institutes

Immediate effects – revenue generators at the institute

Nothing is more convincing than the difference between before and after. Especially when just one treatment has improved the appearance of the skin and a skin problem is hardly there anymore. But how can such visible immediate effects be achieved?

Category: beauty institutes

Calcium and magnesium – the stony elements

After sodium (Na) and potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are the most common (metallic) elements in our bodily metabolism.

Category: ingredients

Phosphorus – concentrated energy

Although it accounts for hardly one per cent in the earth crust phosphorus is an essential component in all forms of life. In the cells, it is capable of storing and transporting energy as phosphoric acid.

Category: ingredients

Silicon – the chained element

Weder Metall noch Nichtmetall – Silicium ist ein sogenanntes Halbmetall mit ganz besonderen Eigenschaften.

Category: ingredients

10 major skin care errors in the cold season

Year after year the same situation at the end of autumn: leisure activities retreat indoors, sports activities are gradually reduced, heating period begins and the light comes from artificial sources. And every year we are caught off guard that the skin also reacts to the new situation, sometimes sooner sometimes later, depending on the skin condition.

Category: skin protection

Skin and skin care – physiology and chemistry in balance? * )

No chemical, only natural or biologically grown ingredients – this is a very popular attitude to skin care products today. The molecular facts behind are far more complicated when addressing the details. Actually a very interesting topic for chemical scientists and the following outline of this multidisciplinary field will show why.

Category: products

Less agents for more care? Skin care with few active agents

A long-term trend in cosmetics is to pack a large number of agents into the preparations in order to improve their convenience and enhance the optical criteria. The concept of “All inclusive” includes active agents and, similar to multivitamin pills, not only facilitates the work of the marketing department but also pleases customers as they can provide for all contingencies and have the best product to show. May be, or maybe not?

Category: products

Inflammaging – the role of adequate skin care

Various causes are responsible for the human skin aging process. Research still remains to be done in order to clarify all the mechanisms involved in the highly complex interactions. A very recent research approach focuses on the so-called inflammaging or in other words the age-related inflammation of the skin.

Category: anti-aging

Sulphur for a beautiful skin

Sulphur compounds sometimes are inconvenient but both commonplace and vital for our body and in particular for our skin and hair.

Category: ingredients

Can shower-baths be bad for your skin?

How often can you enjoy a shower bath without harming your skin? This obviously simple question just cannot be answered with another simple sentence. Actually it can’t be answered at all since it is wrongly asked. The following article shows why.

Category: skin protection

Water – more than just wet

An old saying goes where there is water, there is life. During evolution the first forms of life developed in water. They adapted to the different water conditions.

Category: ingredients

Nitrogen – a driving force

With a ratio of 78 per cent, nitrogen is the most important element in air. A multitude of its compounds can be found in skin care preparations.

Category: ingredients

Oxygen – a premier class element

We inhale it and egest the largest part of it in the form of carbon dioxide and water. It is transparent and without any scent. There is talk of oxygen: a colourless gas that only appears bluish when seen from the outer space and that we all seem to know.

Category: ingredients

Oxygen – more than just hot air

Oxygen is ubiquitous – in air and bound in water and in many other substances around us in our daily life. The colourless gas is full of surprises as the following article shows.

Category: ingredients

Thermal springs – an overview on thermal waters

Thermal springs are attractive destinations for people. Heat and the dissolved minerals and gases determine the physiological properties and hence the effects on health and personal wellbeing.

Category: ingredients

Taskforce TEWL – for a healthy skin barrier

The water balance in the skin is extremely important not only for the skin but for the whole body. In the evolutionary process it was vital to survival to build up a barrier against dehydration. Keeping this protective skin barrier in a healthy and intact state still is one of the major tasks of skin care.

Category: skin diagnosis

Small but mean – plastics and microplastics in cosmetic products

Plastic materials with their partly harmful additives such as plasticisers, antioxidants and Co. continue to be criticised because of the ecological problems they implicate. Mainly the outer packaging, the containers but also the ingredients of cosmetic products are involved, in particular, if it is a matter of small particles or, in other words, microplastics.

Category: ingredients

Rosacea: use of skin care boosters – prevention and therapy

The treatment of rosacea is an excellent example for the interaction of medical therapy and cosmetic prevention but also for the possibilities cosmeticians have at their disposal with purposefully adapted cosmetic measures aimed at minimizing or even superseding medical interventions.

Category: problem skin

The pH value of the skin and of cosmetic preparations

Many of the processes in physics and chemistry are non-linear processes. The following rule of thumb for the shelf life of cosmetic preparations can here be quoted as an example: The shelf life of a cosmetic cream (emulsion) halves when the temperature is raised by 10 °C while it doubles when the temperature is dropped by 10 °C. Similar applies to the pH value where an increase or a drop has a considerable impact on biochemical reactions and the activity of epidermal enzymes. How does the pH work?

Category: ingredients

Clever combinations – the effective and sustainable anti-aging treatment

It is a basic need for many individuals to retard the visible aging symptoms. That is why so-called “miracle agents” are booming as never seen before. Main focus is on achieving apparent effects in no time. However, anti-aging measures should supplement each other and have sustainable effects.

Category: beauty institutes

CO 2 – more than just a greenhouse gas

There is not a single day without the horror stories on climate change and its consequences, be it in newspapers, broadcasts or TV. One of the main polluters is carbon dioxide or abbreviated CO2. Many of its useful properties however get caught up in the maelstrom of the negative communication.  The following paper is intended to partially rehabilitate the agent, among others also in the areas cosmetics and healthiness.

Category: ingredients

Active agents: any innovative substances or concepts?

"What’s new?" It’s a typical question cosmeticians ask during trade fairs and hear in beauty institutes from their customers. As a matter of fact, new developments accelerate and a great deal is changing although not everything can actually be identified as innovative. Hypes, trends, unnecessary and sustainable features appear side by side while actual relevance and medial presence often is wide apart.

Category: beauty institutes

Active agent concentrates – on the benefits of sera and ampoules

Active agents in concentrated form are a long-burning issue. Which of them are really effective and what can they achieve? Is their concentrated form the decisive factor or rather the carrier substance? Another question is what specific skin conditions can best be treated with concentrates?

Category: products

Keeping an overview – What distinguishes topical medical devices from cosmetic products

The care of the skin, the supportive prevention and the therapy of skin diseases requires different products and compositions. They range from cosmetic preparations via topical medical devices up to topical pharmaceuticals. Experience shows that the differentiation between the individual product groups, the application and the effects of the products often is ambiguous. It is difficult for consumers to figure out the complex legal backgrounds, various sources of supply and notorious publicity campaigns.

Category: products

From A to K - Vitamin dictionary focussing on skin care

Besides minerals and omega-3- and omega-6-fatty acids, the vitamins are a group of vital substances for the human metabolism that can only be orally ingested or topically absorbed. Dr Lautenschläger, chemist, has compiled a list of the most important vitamins for the skin care.

Category: special actives

Keeping the intruders at bay - viral and bacterial infections acquired through skin and mucous membranes

Infections can then develop when bacteria, fungi, viruses and Co. penetrate the skin barrier or the mucous membranes. Only after conquering these obstacles, the intruders can attack the internal structures of the body. What are the factors that facilitate or complicate the process, though? What can we do in our daily life to impede this process?

Category: skin protection

Magistral preparations - Cosmetic and pharmaceutical combinations

From time immemorial, the tinctures, ointments, creams and inunctions for dermatological applications were compounded by pharmacists on a small scale or individually prepared based on traditional folk medicine recipes. At the present time prefabricated compounds make up the majority of the products sold in pharmacies and in the cosmetic field. For different reasons though, the interest in personalized formulations has currently been increasing.

Category: base creams

Quantum of sun - prevention & recovery of photodamaged skin 

A moderate amount of sunlight stimulates organism and mind in many ways. Sunlight in higher dosage causes premature skin aging and still more of it will induce photodamages. The tightrope walk now consists in benefitting from the positive effects for our health while avoiding premature skin aging and serious damages to our skin.

Category: problem skin

Hot and spicy - paracress, chillies, mustard and Co.

Nutrition and skin complexion are inextricably linked to each other. From time immemorial a multitude of food components have been applied directly onto the skin. That holds true for vitamins, lipids and a variety of other endogenous and herbal substances. However, who would have thought that cosmetic and dermatological treatments can be enhanced with pungent substances?

Category: special actives

Complexing agents & Co - ambivalent ingredients in cosmetic products

Stable and long lasting products are popular. Short-dated products or, in other words, products with short expiry dates are hard to sell. Long-lasting products frequently are associated with poor degradation profiles, though. Dr Hans Lautenschläger discusses the pros and cons of such ingredients.

Category: ingredients

Cosmetic devices & products - what is beneficial and what is unnecessary?

Cosmetic devices - the bigger and the more recent they are - demonstrate modernity. Digital displays are more convincing than words when it comes to skin diagnosis, treatment and consultation. They are a major key to success not only for customer acquisition but also in the daily routine. When cosmetic devices are combined with the application of cosmetic preparations we can even speak of a dream team.

Category: beauty institutes

Enzymes - to inhibit or to stimulate?

Enzymes control all the chemical reactions in living organisms. The following provides insight into their function and their effects and how they are used in the cosmetic field.

Category: problem skin

Microbiome and skin inflammation

Inflammatory processes in the skin are caused by external impacts or endogenic predispositions. Common cause is a metabolism disorder characterized by modified enzyme concentrations or enzyme defects. Also the protective mechanisms in the epidermis can be impaired.

Category: problem skin

Aluminium Update

Since the discussions on aluminium in skin care products swept the news about five years ago, aluminium salts have taken leave of antiperspirants and deodorant products. However aluminium compounds of natural or semi-synthetic origin still are used in cosmetic products. In the following we will draw up a provisional appraisal.

Category: ingredients

From creams to tonics - an overview on different types of applications

The supply of cosmetic products on the market is endless. It is difficult to keep track of the immense range of preparations - even for professionals. In addition to the different formulations there also is a large variety of types of application with all their advantages and disadvantages. The following overview shows which type of product is best suited for which purpose.

Category: products

Pills to supplement the diet - the impact of food supplements on the skin

Food supplement sales are booming - not only in pharmacies. They are supposed to compensate organic deficits, de-acidify the body or relieve the skin from wrinkles. Which of the promises are realistic?

Category: anti-aging

The seeming and the real - What really works: Cosmeceuticals, Placebos & Co.

The supply of products and promises are booming in the anti-aging beauty care. Not only consumers but also professionals have a hard time staying on top of things. In the following you will find a summary on reliable but also dispensable substances.

Category: anti-aging

Fire and fire brigade - functioning of free radicals and antioxidants

Free radicals and antioxidants can be explained with the example of fire and fire brigade. Although fire actually is dangerous, it is beneficial when under control. Antioxidants can limit the damage when they are used in the right context. Superfluity of them is useless and even counterproductive. Dr Lautenschläger reports on the positive and negative aspects of radicals and antioxidants.

Category: special actives

Natural resources - herbal oils in skin care

Customers like herbal oils. Those who use or recommend them should be familiar with the matter, though, since customers also expect substantiate advice. Dr Hans Lautenschläger has compiled some interesting information on the subject.

Category: ingredients

Minimalism in cosmetics - can less also be more?

What does really matter and what is unnecessary? A lot of people ask themselves such kind of almost philosophical questions on their lifestyle to find an alternative plan to today's excessive consumption. Are such minimalistic considerations also significant in the context of cosmetic care?

Category: beauty institutes

Hyaluronic acid & polysaccharides - for skin hydration and wrinkle reduction

Hyaluronic acid is a chain-shaped molecule composed of repetitive sugar-like units. Over the years hyaluronic acid has developed into an almost indispensable component in cosmetic preparations. And news continue to roll in.....

Category: special actives

Contents matter - evaluation of cosmetics

Short-, long-term- and adverse effects of cosmetics are at close quarters. Product characteristics are rather complex and even experts sometimes are baffled. That is why more and more evaluations of cosmetic products and their ingredients are found in respective internet portals. How these data are generated and how reliable are they?

Category: beauty institutes

Hormones control puberty, pregnancy and menopause - can we control their impact?

Hormones have direct impact on the skin. Individual, age-dependent processes but also long-term and temporary alterations come into play.

Category: problem skin

Hidden harmful substances in cosmetic products

The German Cosmetic Directive (KVO) ensures that the use of cosmetic products is non-hazardous to the health of consumers. As with any other legal regulations there are grey areas that we should know.

Category: ingredients

Too much radiation? Various causes of photodamages

An important topic for advice particularly during warm seasons is how to deal with radiation. Drug interaction or an overdose of sunlight can take a toll on the skin of customers. You are asked for advice!

Category: problem skin

Pigment disorders of the skin: causes and remedies

No matter whether dark or light skin - our skin colour is genetically determined. However there are other factors too that influence the complexion such as UV radiation or cosmetics.

Category: special actives

Studies in cosmetics - What is true?

If the question "Are there any studies on an active agent or a preparation" can be answered with „yes", you can be sure that science is involved and that there is an objective certificate for the truth content of an issue. However, can we really rely on it?

Category: products

Cosmeceuticals - phospholipids

When it comes to cosmeceuticals, often the classics prove to be the highly efficient products and not the new substances freshly out of the retort. Besides vitamins and essential fatty acids, also the phospholipids rank among the classics.

Category: special actives

Skin & hormones

INTERVIEW - We (Beauty Forum) asked Dr. Hans Lautenschläger to explain how hormones influence the skin and what kind of skin care you could apply in the case of hormone-induced skin conditions. The scientist gives an insight into the use and effects of hormonally active substances and the reactions they trigger in the body.

Category: problem skin

Facial cleansing - ingredients & equipment

All sorts of things end up on the skin as the day progresses - a lot of them unintentionally, some deliberately, and what then remains is produced by the skin itself. Now the question arises how to cleanse the skin so that unwanted substances are removed on the one hand and that the skin will not suffer from repetitive cleansing rituals on the other hand? The following article deals with the daily cleansing procedures which should be individually reviewed and which also require instinctive feeling.

Category: products

Endocrine disruptors - harmful for the endocrine system

Various substances have an effect on the hormonal balance. They occur in food, pharmaceutical drugs or cosmetics. Some of them have impeding effects.

Category: ingredients

Intimate care - sensible & gentle

For quite some time now, the discussions around the microbiome of the skin also have reached the intimate body areas. It has become apparent that body hygiene and body care are not only advantageous but also can be counterproductive to some extent. Men and women alike should know about the details that matter.

Category: products

Glycols in skin care preparations and dermatics

Glycols are widely used as cosmetic additives or active agents in skin care preparations and dermatics. They ensure that preparations are microbiologically safe, have excellent haptic features and improve the skin moisture. Their specific features are described in the following.

Category: ingredients

Phosphates: the power suppliers for skin and hair

Life without phosphorus, that is unthinkable! Plants solubilize phosphate-containing rocks and soils with the help of their acids and then resorb the phosphoric acid contained therein. Humans ingest the element via food chain.

Category: special actives

Microorganisms - in and around our body

The daily struggle against microorganisms goes on but the fact is that we can't do without them. Their busy and invisible work for our well-being passes unnoticeable however their bad behaviour provides headlines, stress and high body temperature. There is talk of bacteria yeasts and fungi.

Category: problem skin

Anti-pollution cosmetics

Stricter laws have led to a drop of environmental pollution in Germany in the past decades. By the same token, the individual sensitivity to harmful environmental influences has been on the increase. Besides the products for skin protection, also "detox" cosmetics have become established today. An expert on the subject informs on mechanism and point of action.

Category: skin protection

Advantages of products without water and cosmetic additives

Water is an essential substance to maintain skin hydration and elasticity. However, there are also water-free products on the market. Why is that? When are they used and what are the benefits?

Category: products

Sterile packaging - products and methods

There is one thing in common with food and skin care preparations: both are perishables. This is why sterile conditions are required for manufacturing, storage and application. Preservatives are just one of the options to ensure sterility.

Category: ingredients

Anti-aging treatments - are they still available without cosmetic devices?

Using modern skin care devices in cosmetic institutes becomes more and more popular, above all if it is a matter of anti-aging treatments. Frequently the clients ask for visible results and book skin care treatments with cosmetic devices.

Category: beauty institutes

Modular cosmetics

Modular cosmetic products help beauty institutes earn points with their customers. Certain basic conditions should be observed when using modular cosmetics. Dr. Hans Lautenschläger explains the parameters.

Category: base creams

Anti-irritant agents

The tolerance of cosmetic preparations is an ongoing issue - among consumers as well as among manufacturers. Skin condition, subjective feeling and the objective properties of substances play a role in this context.

Category: special actives

Chain reaction - skin enzymes and enzyme defects

The human metabolism is a finely tuned system operated and maintained in balance by various chemical reactions. Enzymes are the facilitators that catalyse the individual reactions. Defects and mutations cause dysregulations which also have consequences for the skin.

Category: problem skin

Skin and body odours

Our body odour surrounds us like an aura. It contributes to whether we feel an instant attraction or dislike for another person.

Category: beauty institutes

Unwanted adverse effects

When cosmetic products trigger allergies and intolerances often the ingredients are the troublemakers. Frequently overlooked are essential (co-)factors such as the individual skin constitution, random exogenous impacts, inappropriate preparations, too much or too many skin care products and, last but not least, the psychological make-up.

Category: beauty institutes

Skin structure and skin care requirements - From past to future

For a long time in human cultural development, cosmetics and medicine had been considered as one discipline. About 150 years ago, with the onset of industrialisation, the influence of natural science and the identification, isolation and big scale production of chemicals and ingredients, the separation into individual disciplines became apparent.

Category: skin diagnosis

Flavones and isoflavones - the all-rounders among active agents

With their broad range of applications multifunctional active agents are particularly interesting for skin care. Besides vitamins, polyphenols have a large potential. Their most prominent representatives are flavones and isoflavones.

Category: special actives

Contact dermatoses - causes, prevention and professional care of irritated skin

Contact dermatoses occur at the workplace but also during leisure time. What people tend to call allergy actually more often turns out to be an irritation. Prevalence varies and depends on a multitude of different factors. If the persons concerned know about preventive measures and how to apply them or know about the measures to take whenever symptoms strike, the associated problems can be largely minimized.

Category: problem skin

Sound base - pharmaceutical and cosmetic base creams

The treatment of medical indications and cosmetic skin problems depends on how diagnosis and skin analysis are translated into an adequate therapy with appropriate preparations. Beneficial here are base creams that allow extemporaneous preparations.

Category: base creams

Keep your eyes open - eye problem assistance

Sleepy eyes are hardly attractive, the more so as reduced lacrimation and an increased dehydration of the surrounding skin areas often are accompanying symptoms. Which cosmetic products are beneficial in this case?

Category: products

Antimicrobial peptides

Acids and barrier lipids of the stratum corneum (horny layer) are the skin's first line of defence against infections. However, they also are the basis for a typical microbial colonisation (skin flora). The skin flora contains harmless but also facultative pathogenic germs. Peptide structures neutralise these pathogenic but also exogenous germs when they attempt to penetrate into the skin.

Category: special actives

Triclosan - partial ban, widely used

The antimicrobial chemical used as a preservative in cosmetic products has been criticized for a long time already. Our expert explains why and gives an update on the current legal situation.

Category: ingredients

So small and subtle - nanoparticles from solid to liquid

The ingredients of nanodispersions can partly replace pharmaceutical active agents - often with the same efficiency.1 Hence they are ideal base substances for cosmeceuticals.2 

Category: special actives

Saponins in skin care

Saponins are one of the most diversified substance classes in nature. Quite a number of saponins already have a long tradition of practical application and are well-known from folk medicine. The following article covers the different structures and effects of saponins.

Category: special actives

Antioxidants and radical scavengers - too much is too much

Antioxidants and radical scavengers belong to the most common components of anti-aging preparations. The trend towards appropriate food supplements and cosmeceuticals still continues.

Category: special actives

Cosmetic studies

The trend in cosmetics goes towards highly effective active agents. Since the Cosmetic Directive demands for safe cosmetic preparations that are free of adverse effects, there is need for comprehensive quality control and validation of the products. A selection of quality control procedures is described in the following.

Category: products

Bioengineering of the skin - combo makes the difference

More and more beauty institutes use devices and equipment to optimize their skin care treatments. It also is a fact that most of the device-assisted techniques are inconceivable without the appropriate preparations.

Category: beauty institutes

Aluminium - a much-discussed element 1

For some time past there has been much discussion on aluminium containing antiperspirants and deodorants. Many of us are not aware that aluminium also is a component of hygiene products and many other cosmetic preparations and that it is ubiquitous in our environment - literally wherever we go.

Category: ingredients

Retinoids and their use in cosmetics

Although already veterans among the cosmetic active agents they are the number one active agents among the cosmeceuticals: retinoids. This naturally occurring substance class is omnipresent in our daily skin care, our medical drugs and our daily nutrition.

Category: special actives

Perioral dermatitis - causes, treatment and differentiation

Perioral dermatitis is a common problem, but the solution is not easy to find. Associated irritations are rather persistent and definitely an ordeal for the persons affected but also for cosmeticians.

Category: problem skin

Cosmetic preparations with specific attributes

Although we live in a high-tech environment, the tendency towards spiritual thinking still is firmly established in human reasoning. The so released forces are apparent every day - just consider the global conflicts around religion and religious faith.

Category: products

Frankincense - the resin with healing power

Frankincense ("Boswellia") has become rather important in various cultures and religions: the resilience of the tree growing in the Asian and African semi deserts is legendary and the tribal knowledge on the mystic and healing powers of its resin fills entire libraries. Today's science still appreciates its specific properties. What is it that makes frankincense so valuable?

Category: special actives

Eight questions on sun protection

"What kind of sun cream would you recommend for me?" and "What is important when purchasing sun creams?" Your customers probably often ask such kind of questions during summer season. We have interviewed Dr Hans Lautenschläger on the effects and the ingredients of sun creams. So you are prepared for all kinds of questions on this issue.

Category: skin protection

Asking the expert: Any potent active agents to treat excessive sweating?

Persons with hyperhidrosis certainly have already tested the one or other active agent. We interviewed Dr. Hans Lautenschläger on profuse sweating, on potential natural compounds and the pros and cons of aluminium free deodorants.

Category: special actives

Approved skin lightener - tranexamic acid is effective against pigmented spots and redness

In the medical field, tranexamic acid is a reliable haemostatic agent during surgery and in the case of accidental injuries. In medical cosmetics, tranexamic acid is used for skin treatments: already small amounts can bleach pigmented spots and reduce redness - also in combination with instrument-based techniques.

Category: special actives

Acne - the potentials of cosmetic prevention

Acne does not only appear during adolescence but can also be constant companion of adults. Cosmetic preparations can help in getting a grip on it.

Category: problem skin

Overdoing skin care - too much of a good thing

Do you know the typical disease of female flight attendants? Well, it's a rash that develops due to exaggerated skin care! The protective shell of the body suffers with insufficient skin care but obviously also with too much skin care.

Category: problem skin

Skin care before and after surgery

Adjuvant skin care plays a significant role in the context of aesthetic surgery. Adequately administered it helps accelerate the recovery process, discontinue pharmaceutical medication at an earlier stage and has a lasting positive effect on the surgery results.

Category: problem skin

Don't take risks! - Skin protection in beauty institutes

Manual work, mechanical strain and the contact with various substances: if these characteristics are typical for your workplace, you are more likely to suffer from skin reactions and dermatoses. Protect yourself!

Category: skin protection

Lip care insights - well-tried and new lip care tips

Soft, smooth and glossy: healthy lips are quite attractive. That is why wax and pigment containing preparations and sticks have become an integral part of the cosmetic skin care routine. Some of the lip care preparations have hardly changed over time, which is quite amazing, while others have been added as a result of recent scientific research.

Category: products

Alkaloids in cosmetic applications

Hot and spicy, reviving or even intoxicating - we are talking of alkaloids. If you now think of nicotine, caffeine or cocaine in this context, you are quite right. However, the family of alkaloids is more diverse and also makes a significant component in skin care preparations.

Category: special actives

Vitamins in cosmetics

While many other cosmetic active agents experience their ups and downs, vitamins continue to be in vogue. They are essential components of natural and of physiological cosmetics.

Category: special actives

Flawless skin - active agents and active agent systems

A radiant complexion is the beauty ideal per se. Light or dark spots are annoying and can be quite a nuisance if they are well-marked. The cosmetic sector offers a large variety of active agents to take remedial action.

Category: special actives

Waxes - an indispensable family

What comes into your mind when you hear the term waxes? Maybe beeswax, candle wax or floor wax? It may not sound familiar in a cosmetic context but waxes are more common in cosmetics than you might think.

Category: ingredients

All made of sugar - Glycosides in skin care products

What does a lump of sugar have in common with hyaluronic acid, algae extract or the so-called AGE deposits in atrophic skin? They all belong to the family of glycosides - a substance class that can be found in a whole variety of cosmetic preparations.

Category: special actives

Highly effective - Cosmeceuticals

When can we or should we speak of cosmeceuticals or to put it another way, cosmetic ingredients with pharmaceutical effects? Cosmetologists and lawyers assiduously discuss the matter. Read more on the respective criteria and on the substances and applications that act as the model for cosmeceuticals.

Category: products

Phospholipids - the all-rounders

What does an element like phosphorus that rather is associated with the match industry have to do with skin and cosmetics? As a matter of fact, most of the processes in which the substance is involved take place without becoming aware of them. It is not exaggerating to say that phosphorus and phospholipids are absolutely vital for life.

Category: special actives

Vitamins in cosmetic products - just additives or added benefit as well?

Vitamins belong to the most frequent components in cosmetic products. With their positive image they always are useful for marketing purposes - even when added to a rinse-off product where they will not remain on the skin. By the same token, specific vitamin-containing products are beneficial in the treatment of various skin conditions. The survey informs on the use and treatments with vitamins.

Category: special actives

Careful with washing! - Gentle skin care for babies and small children

The epidermis of children up to 3 years is relatively thin, shows minimal sweat and sebum production, has an increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and is sensitive. Recommendations for the care of the infant skin are compiled in the following article.

Category: problem skin

Sun protection products - appropriate use

More and more day care creams are equipped with UV filters. While the production of sun filters skyrockets therewith, the endocrinal efficacy of some filters is being disussed by experts. Information on the state of the art and the most efficient way of protecting against sun radiation is compiled in the following.

Category: products

Facets of intimate care - less is more

Intimate care always has been and will continue to be a domain of women. Obviously there is a solution for any kind of problem. However not all the products offered on the cosmetic market will automatically contribute to the individual wellbeing.

Category: products

The water balance in our skin: moisturizers & Co.

The term moisturizing cream has different meanings according to whether we are in the English-speaking world or the German-speaking part. Two terms are essential in this context: moisturizers and emollients. Information on common features and on the way how they influence the water balance of the skin is provided in the following.

Category: special actives

Extinguishing the flames - anti-inflammatory active agents

If we speak of anti-inflammatory active agents in the cosmetic field, we predominantly deal with a prevention of local irritations caused by contact with everyday substances, micro-organisms or by mechanical stress or micro lesions. Accordingly, it is not a matter of a therapeutic use of active agents to treat the neurodermitic skin, serious acne vulgaris or acute psoriasis. Nevertheless, also in cases of a disposition to inflammatory skin reactions it is important to select the adequate skin care.

Category: special actives

Skin care at strong sweat formation*

Sweat glands are high-performance glands. They become active when the body's surface temperature needs to be cooled down, or in other words, whenever the body temperature rises and the temperature has to be dissipated quickly, or if the heat dissipation of the body is not sufficiently ensured in the case of high outdoor temperatures. In both cases the high evaporative cooling of water is utilized - only 1 g of sweat (about 99 % of water) eliminates about 600 calories out of the body surface and the surrounding air during evaporation.

Category: problem skin

Repairing the barrier - on active agents and active agent systems to support the skin regeneration

For a long time, the term skin regeneration has been used with reserve only since it insinuates a healing effect that legally is not allowed for advertising purposes. In the final analysis, the term "regeneration" originates from medicine and resumes, in a nutshell, the regenerating cell biological processes.

Category: problem skin

Shave that beard! - Skin care before and after shavings

There are many ways to get rid of unwanted hair on various parts of the body. How does the skin react to the different techniques? What can be done to avoid or sooth irritations?

Category: products

Skin whitening agents from A to Z - a summary

When you cut an apple and leave it uncovered, it will quickly turn brown. This brown colouring originates from the oxidation of the polyphenols of the apple with atmospheric oxygen assisted by the enzyme phenoloxidase. Lemon juice with its high content of antioxidant vitamin C can impede this reaction.

Category: special actives

Biodegradable lamellar systems in skin care, skin protection and dermatology

ABSTRACT: The following review comprises background, literature and applications of biodegradable lamellar systems, their characteristics and limitations. The article is focussed on phosphatidylcholine containing preparations like liposomes, nanodispersions and derma membrane structure.

Category: special actives

Antioxidants - an overview

During the past years, no other active agent class has attracted more attention as a cosmetic ingredient than the group of antioxidants with their radical scavenging properties. Now it is time to draw the balance and compile an orientation guide as to the large variety of active agents.

Category: special actives

Protecting the skin barrier - fungal infections and skin care

Pharmacy offers a multitude of highly efficient active agents for the treatment of fungal infections. Experience however has shown that without appropriate skin care the symptoms soon reappear after the antimycotic medication has been stopped.

Category: problem skin

Summary: Release and bioavailability

A key issue considering the efficacy of skin care products is the release of the active agents contained. In this respect, not only the concentrations but also the base formulations of creams, dispersions and solutions play an important part. The subsequent penetration into the horny layer depot, the passage into deeper skin layers and, where applicable, also the metabolization determine the dermal bioavailability of active agents in order to carry out their intended functions.

Category: ingredients

Shady sides - manifestations of light dermatoses

Besides the well-known sun burns, sunlight also can trigger very annoying light dermatoses. Food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic ingredients are potential influencing factors. Sometimes even preventive measures and medicine are of little help, all the more important is an adequate skin care.

Category: problem skin

Let it grow again - on actives and active systems to stimulate hair growth

Beautiful hair is considered as an expression of vitality. Yet, what can be done if a hormone-related hair loss strikes at an early age already? Since ages people have used tricks and tinctures to reactivate its growth - to no avail though. Now, there are new findings that may raise hope.

Category: special actives

Stratum corneum - from corneobiochemistry to corneotherapy

The epidermis is a dynamic system of continuous proliferation and differentiation. It mainly consists of keratinocytes, melanocytes and immune-competent cells. The stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis is of major significance for the barrier function of the skin. The barrier is formed of keratinized skin cells (corneocytes) which are embedded into a matrix of multiple lamellar lipid layers.

Category: base creams

Piggyback - an overview on transport systems

Speaking of transport systems for cosmetic active agents, we automatically think of tiny filled spherical bodies that wriggle their way through the gaps between the corneocytes and then empty their load in the deeper layer of the epidermis. That is a good story though, but unfortunately not a true one. The following article will deal with the actual facts.

Category: ingredients

A focus on nerves - on intended and adverse effects

In our private and professional life, we come across quite a few things that literally get on our nerves and also under our skin in the true sense of the word. We feel how we break into perspiration, how we blush or turn pale. Also cosmetic products have an effect on our nerves.

Category: special actives

Elastase - the target of a novel anti-aging strategy to defy skin aging, loss of skin elasticity and wrinkle formation

In the skin, the epidermal stem cells are responsible for the formation and regeneration of all the different cells in the epidermis. Since the skin progressively differentiates and regenerates, the epidermal stem cells are the most important skin cells in charge of the epidermal homeostasis, of the regeneration of the elastin and collagen fibres as well as the regeneration of the skin barrier. With aging, the number of epidermal stem cells decreases and accordingly also the capacity of the skin to regenerate with the consequence that barrier disorders develop, hydration and elasticity of the skin are reduced and wrinkles will form. The skin elasticity is influenced by the quality and quantity of elastin and collagen fibrils.

Category: anti-aging

No crinkle-look - an arsenal of anti-wrinkle agents at choice

There may be regrets though that those characteristic faces furrowed with wrinkles and deep lines are less common today. However, media and commercials talk us into a concept of beauty that lays emphasis on smooth skin. What can you do to preserve the skin smooth and supple?

Category: special actives

Landing approach - preparing for the final descent - skincare for pregnant women

When the stork has announced his arrival, the furnishing of the apartment, the daily routine and the baby equipment need to be organized. Also the skin care should be adapted to the new situation.

Category: problem skin

Food intolerance - when food irritates the skin

Itching skin or skin rash - who would think that the daily diet can trigger the symptoms? Not only the substances that get in contact with the skin but also orally ingested substances may cause skin reactions. What can be done?

Category: problem skin

Skin - from the outside in

Keeping the skin's barrier in good health could be the key to optimal skincare according to the team at dermaviduals. Lizzy Wood reports.

Category: problem skin

Treatment of problem skins - an overview

If you start out to renovate a building you should begin with the roof. In terms of the problem skin, first priority should be given to the skin barrier. Next step then is the renovation or in other words the recovery of the skin. Which active agents are appropriate in this case? The following article will provide assistance.

Category: problem skin

Skin care during cancer therapy

When customers undergo cancer treatment also the skin condition is affected. Problems and side effects of cancer therapies can be attenuated with an adequate skin care.

Category: problem skin

Growth factors - the body's own peptides control various cell functions

Peptides have become a topic of intense biochemical research since they control a multitude of regulatory functions in the body. Also the growth factors are an object of research since they regulate the development of young organisms and initiate repair mechanisms and healing processes in the later course of life. It's not surprising though that they are also in the focus of cosmetics.

Category: special actives

Powders, gels, creams & sticks - Routes of administration

Cosmetic products often have rather imaginative names and sometimes even propose riddles to the consumers. In other words, a so-called gel may prove to be no gel at all in the technological sense of the term. The main characteristics of the different routes of administration are described in the following.

Category: products

Corneotherapy

The future of skincare has arrived.

Category: problem skin

Skin care for the vitiligo-affected skin - aspirations and reality

Vitiligo is a rather conspicuous skin disease since the respective skin areas have completely lost their pigmentation. Although, the causes of the disease still are largely unidentified, there is help available for the patients concerned in the form of adequate skin care products and active agents.

Category: problem skin

Without carriers only modest effects - Functions and effects of carriers in cosmetic products

When we talk about carriers in cosmetic products we need to distinguish between particular chemically defined substances and physical carrier bodies. In conclusion, both alternatives have the same effects: combined with active agents they increase the bioavailability. An enhanced bioavailability requires in-depth knowledge on the physiological processes in the skin and strictly contrasts with the idea of "a lot helps a lot!"

Category: ingredients

Vitamins in cosmetics

While many other cosmetic active agents experience their ups and downs, vitamins continue to be in vogue. They are essential components of natural and of physiological cosmetics.

Category: special actives

Jars, tubes, dispensers etc - cosmetic packaging

The packaging of skin care products serves for product protection but also is intended to persuade people to buy. What particular functions and requirements are important for the packaging of cosmetic products?

Category: products

Benchmark skin measurements - a solid evidence

Measuring the skin before and after the treatment is a popular method to awaken consumer desire for skin care products. Also cosmeticians can convince their customers with facts and figures.

Category: skin diagnosis

Trace elements - tiny helpers for a healthy life

They only occur in minute amounts in the human body. Nevertheless, a decline in trace element concentration causes severe deficiency symptoms. Read more about their function, effects and their significance in the cosmetic field in the following.

Category: special actives

Little powerhouses - what hand creams should accomplish

The daily work takes its toll on our hands - especially through contact with specific substances. And, the efficacy of hand creams varies a lot - it all depends on the particular formulation.

Category: products

Nanoparticles - sizing up skin care

I recently read an interesting article, passed to me by my Australian colleagues. It's a long way from Germany to Australia but the issues raised in the article "I'm as Mad as Hell....." by Danné, published in the Nov/Dec 2010 issue of Professional Beauty, resonated with me so strongly I felt obliged to put pen to paper.

Category: special actives

Moisturizers for the skin care

The term moisturizer generally stands for moisturizing creams. The present overview will inform on components that influence the skin hydration.

Category: special actives

Gentle products for soothing massages

Wellness and cosmetic treatments - both are unimaginable without massages! The customer longs for relaxation and expects the promised results. Professional competence is required here - and the appropriate media in form of creams, oils and gels.

Category: products

Cellulite from A to Z

Exceptions prove the rule: the vast majority of women will develop cellulite some time in their life. The treatment of the annoying indentations has grown into a profitable branch of business within cosmetics. There are lots of promises but reality frequently is different. The following overview shows what can be done and what actually is impossible.

Category: problem skin

Layer per layer - the structure of the skin

The skin is a complicated and highly efficient organ which protects our body and adds to its attractiveness. It is also barrier and intermediate station for outgoing and incoming substances. In general, we are not aware of what it can actually achieve. If the functions of the skin are impaired, however, it can become quite uncomfortable.

Category: skin diagnosis

Silicon - the global player in cosmetics

As a cosmetic agent, the element silicon plays a wallflower role: only at the first glance, though. As a matter of fact, the semi-metal is insignificant as an active agent. However, organic silicon additives and inorganic silicates are widely used in cosmetic products.

Category: ingredients

A comparison - pharmaceutical and cosmetic active agents

Medical drugs or cosmetics? Once the cosmetician realizes, that a skin condition demands more professional competency than she can provide in her institute, she recommends visiting a dermatologist. We compare pharmaceutical and cosmetic active agents.

Category: special actives

From soap to high-tech emulsifiers

There are two basic needs that are as old as mankind - hygiene and skin care. Both of them deal with the transport of lipid substances. In order to work most effectively while being gentle on the skin, modern cosmetic products make use of powerful tensides and emulsifiers. Recent emulsifying systems even are oriented towards biological structures.

Category: ingredients

On substances that release emotions - a tour across the world of perfumes

Scents and fragrances are part of our daily life to the point that we often have become oblivious of them. But we unknowingly react to them. Tiny chemical molecules signalize messages with major psychological effects.

Category: ingredients

Radio waves and boswellia nanoparticles - a new derma rejuvenation therapy

Considerations on skin physiology and skin aging from the biochemical point of view

Category: anti-aging

Sensitive skin - identifying symptoms and causes

Besides the fact that simple causes often have major consequences for the skin, cosmetic practices are also confronted with complex issues when it comes to sensitive skin. Identifying the complex problem is a major prerequisite for a causal and successful cosmetic treatment.

Category: skin diagnosis

Acids and bases from A to Z

Acids somehow have a spectacular image in skin care. They either have caustic effects in the true sense of the word or they are the magic cure for a beautiful skin per se. Bases, as their counterparts, only live a wallflower existence as neutralizers. Details and backgrounds are covered in the following article.

Category: ingredients

Crossing borders - on the boundaries of cosmetic skin care

There is only a smooth transition from problem skin to pathological skin conditions. Although it is not the job of professional cosmeticians to diagnose skin diseases, it is essential to know the borderlines. Otherwise there is a risk of getting into conflict with health legislation.

Category: problem skin

Corneotherapeutic skin care for the rosacea skin

Rosacea predominantly affects fair-skinned people and develops in adult age. Characteristic symptoms are erythema, changes of the superficial blood vessels and connective tissue as well as enlarged sebum follicles. Frequently there are also oedema and pustules to observe. In addition, there is a whole variety of special forms of rosacea.

Category: problem skin

Ubiquitous like sand on the beaches: silicon and its compounds

As a cosmetic agent, silicon plays a wallflower role. Only at the first glance, though: its salts and organic compounds are used in many applications, as e.g. masks, packs or hair care products.

Category: ingredients

Using synergies - How active agents and cream bases interlink cosmetics and pharmacy

No doubt - the grey area between pharmaceutical and cosmetic skin care products is expanding. Dermaceuticals and dermocosmetics are keywords which demonstrate that the cosmetic product market is gaining grounds in the pharmaceutical field, not least because of legal claims for a proof of efficiency

Category: base creams

Eye care basics - on active agents and eye formulations

Besides language and gestures also our eyes play a significant role in communication. Expressive eyes can be the decisive factor in determining sympathy and appeal. That is why the preventive cosmetic care of the eye area is of particular importance.

Category: anti-aging

Fragrance sample? Aldehydes and ketones

Formaldehyde and acetone are immediately associated with nail hardeners and nail enamel remover. In chemical terms, these substances belong to the substance class of aldehydes and ketones - which are well-known molecules in cosmetic products like e.g. preservatives, perfumes or essential oils.

Category: ingredients

Sun protection: on the efficiency of UV filters

Whenever the skin is exposed to bright sunlight, the natural protective mechanisms of the skin will no longer be sufficient. Sun protection creams are inevitable in order to protect the skin against the negative effects of UV radiation. How do the UV filters in sun protection creams work and how efficient are they actually?

Category: skin protection

Fragrances, vitamins and hormones - the ABC of terpenes

They are a main component of natural essential oils - terpenes. The chemical compounds are primarily used as aromatic or flavoring substances in perfumes and cosmetics. Yet, they are also major intermediate products of the human metabolism.

Category: special actives

From biochemistry - the ABC of steroids

Steroids can be found in food and skin care products, in pharmaceutical drugs and last but not least even in our own body. They have effects on heart and blood circulation, fat metabolism, sexuality and skin condition.

Category: special actives

Versatile use - alcohols in skin care products

What do you understand by the term alcohol or alcohols? What are the functions associated with it? Imagining cosmetic products without this substance class is almost impossible, except for powders.

Category: ingredients

The ABC of fatty acids

We come into contact with fatty acids day in, day out as they are elements of our daily nutrition and skin care. Already the syllable „fat" reminds us of calories and even more disagreeable is the idea of something like "acids". Fatty acids have more influence on our health than we generally assume, though. Their metabolic products control a multitude of functions in our body and in the skin.

Category: special actives

Denatured!!? - Use pure alcohol!

Legislative authorities suspiciously regulate and survey the use of alcohol, even in cosmetic products. Both quality and safety of skin care products do not benefit from this policy.

Category: ingredients

Hormone cycles - menopause skin care

We cannot live without hormones. They influence our bodily functions, physical capacity and moods from birth to old age. We are particularly sensible of their effect during menopause.

Category: problem skin

Enhanced skin structure through innovative anti-aging treatment with Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) and boswellia nanoparticles

[IPL-activated boswellia-(frankincense-)Triterpenes]

Category: anti-aging

Denaturants in cosmetic products - health is secondary

Concerning the ingredients of cosmetic products their purity is essential. The fact that the products may also contain additives that are mandatory, have nothing to do with skin care and may even cause counterproductive effects is discussed in the following paper.

Category: ingredients

Skin care for the adolescent skin

During adolescence teenagers increasingly pay attention to their outer appearance and frequently take a look in the mirror. Blemished skin often becomes a problem. Acne, perspiration etc. wreck their nerves. What can be done when the skin goes haywire, particularly at this time when everyone is focused on impressing the opposite sex?

Category: problem skin

Skin care for psoriasis skin - individually adapted

Every problem skin requires a skin care which is optimally adapted to the individual patient, particularly during non-acute conditions or periods free of complaints. Preventive care may help reduce the stress for psoriasis- affected persons.

Category: problem skin

Laser- & IPL treatments - the appropriate skin care

The use of lasers in the cosmetic and dermatological treatment has become increasingly popular in recent years. Experience has shown that preparative steps before the treatment and an adequate follow-up care are of vital importance in order to achieve optimal results.

Category: anti-aging

(Poly)Saccharides in cosmetic products - From alginate to xanthan gum

Polysaccharides are omnipresent ingredients of cosmetics. They do an absolutely reliable job in silence and far away from the all-too-fleeting active agents and that is why we are no longer aware of them. How important they really are and where they are actually used is explained in the following survey.

Category: ingredients

Mechanical, chemical, enzymatic - peelings for every type of skin

No matter whether salt, sand or acid based: peelings are used to stimulate the skin recovery and to restore a youthful appearance. The cosmetician today has various techniques at her disposal to achieve these goals.

Category: products

Omnipresent and multifunctional - amino acids in skin care

Amino acids are indispensable from the vegetable and animal kingdom including men through to microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses. There is no life on earth without these basic elements. Why and which specific amino acids are vital for the human skin is described in the following.

Category: special actives

"I cannot tolerate this product" - the influence of medical drugs on skin and skin care

Again and again beauty institutes and practices are confronted with spontaneous or chronic skin reactions. As a rule, the skin care used is then suspected to be the culprit. Frequently it is wrongly accused, as there are various other factors that play a significant role - as for instance medical drugs.

Category: problem skin

Polyethylene glycols & Co - On effects and side effects

Besides water and oils hardly any other substance group is as widely used in skin care products and dermatics as polyethylene glycols and their related substances. Interesting things to know are compiled in the following article.

Category: ingredients

Nanoparticles in cosmetic products - good or bad?

New developments create anxieties and raise questions. First and foremost because it lacks information and experience. Frequently hearsay is the only source of information available. Nanoparticles are not the same kind of quantum leap as the first steam locomotives were, though. The following article will bring some light into the darkness around the small particles.

Category: special actives

The Use of Liposomes from Soya Phospholipids in Cosmetics

This article shows that on the one hand the development of the liposomes technology offers great chances for many new cosmetic products (which are very desirable from the consumer's point of view), but that on the other hand the cosmetics developer has to deal very intensively with questions of raw material selection, characterization of raw and finished products as well as the question about the biological fate of his formulations, in order to avoid risks. In this connection, soya phospholipids in the form of liposomes have much to recommend them, in view of their wide spectrum of activity and the decades of experience with these natural raw materials in food and pharmaceuticals.

Category: special actives

Liposomes in Dermatological Preparations Part II

In Part I, some theoretical background on the structure of liposomes and their probable mechanisms of action on and in the skin were reviewed. Part II will discuss in more detail the utilization of liposomes in dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Appropriate uses are suggested, and some practical limits pointed out.

Category: special actives

Liposomes in Dermatological Preparations Part I

Liposomes or liposomal aggregation may have played a role in the formation of the first cell membrane on Earth. Immediately after the discovery of liposomes by Bangham, there was intense research in the pharmaceutical industry concerning their parenteral application, but without a decisive breakthrough. It was only with the success of the first liposomal cosmetic called "Capture" that it became evident that the possibilities for the application of artificial vesicles could be achieved in practice in the market place.

Category: special actives

Electron-microscopical Detection of Liposomes in a Skin Treatment Gel

This study is an example for the quality control of a liposomal skin care gel and shows the compatibility of liposomes based on soya phospholipids with a gel forming agent of the xanthan type. The analysis described allows imaging of liposomes in their surroundings and demonstrates that the preparation is correct as far as formulation is concerned.

Category: special actives

Comments concerning the legal framework for the use of liposomes in cosmetic preparations

Concerning cosmetics the same application criteria are valid for liposome formulations as for other comparable forms of application. The advertising claims for a deep acting liposome preparation must not be extended into the »drug« field. The argumentation becomes much simpler if highly unsaturated natural phospholipids are employed as raw material for the liposomes.

Category: special actives

Vegetable oils

Vegetable oils are the oldest known skin care products. Yet they are important as ever. Find out more about the manifold and interesting features of this substance group in the following.

Category: ingredients

Let's have a look at your feet... Well-cared feet walk better!

Pedicure tends to be neglected in young age. Wrongfully - since preventive care is a significant factor to be a good walker also in later years. The following survey describes which specific products and what kind of treatment play a role in this context.

Category: products

Delicate children skin - criteria for the adequate skin care

Cosmetic products usually are developed for adults. Thus customers often are not sure which product may be used for children or baby skin. Not every product is appropriate - specifically if it contains substances that are inadequate or overdosed for children skin.

Category: problem skin

Ultrasound gels - effects, compositions, applications

Ultrasound applications have found their way into the standard repertoire of cosmetic treatments. What is the role of ultrasound gels in this context?

Category: products

Hyaluronic acid - a legendary agent

Hyaluronic acid is a legendary agent in the true sense of the word and it is almost impossible to imagine basic skin care and the treatment of wrinkles and dry eye syndrome without it. However where there is light there is also shadow and more and more treatment procedures with hyaluronic acid become known that rather belong into the category of wheeling and dealing than into scientifically based concepts. Read more about this agent in the following.

Category: special actives

Beauty products for men - which products are useful?

Advertising campaigns for men's cosmetics have now come to fruition - the market already expects a double-digit growth rate. In the following find out more about the beauty products HE really needs.

Category: products

Lasting effect? Tendencies in anti-aging treatments

Wrinkles - now customers can well do without these and that is the reason why they willingly buy the promoted anti-aging skin care products on the market. Aim of these products however should be the effective prevention of the skin aging process. According to Dr. Hans Lautenschläger empty words or short-lived agents only are not enough.

Category: anti-aging

Stressed skin - itching & Co. - causes and remedies

Rather unpleasant phenomenon: unbearable itching combined with erythema. Whether it is an insect bite or nettle rash after the contact with certain plants, the urge to scratch is specifically unpleasant at night times, and in public it even implies poor hygienic conditions and parasites. Occasionally the skin is irritated but the irritation cannot be localized and scratching is no relief. The following survey deals with causes and cosmetic remedies.

Category: problem skin

Skin reactions - cosmetics and their effects

The ingredients of skin care products may cause inflammatory processes in the skin under certain conditions. On the other hand there are also cosmetic components which may effectively impede inflammatory processes. In the following survey the contrary ingredients are exemplarily compared with each other.

Category: problem skin

Scars - cosmetic prevention and skin care

Scars are a frequent topic in beauty institutes. So far cosmetic only has focused on decorative and concealing products. However, recently developed new agents and bases have considerably improved cosmetic treatment methods.

Category: problem skin

Skin care during radiotherapy - soothing, vitalizing and protecting

Cancer therapies usually involve quite negative side effects and radiotherapy affects the skin in both ways: from the outside when it was used as a passageway for radiation and from the inside when the skin reacts to scattered radiation. How can skin care measures contribute to minimize the negative effects of the therapy? What kind of preventive measures are available?

Category: problem skin

Eye care products - ingredients and effects

Our eyes are like business cards for our internal frame of mind. Sadness, happiness, curiosity and almost every personal feeling can be read in our eyes and hence is communicated to our fellow human beings. Reasons enough to pay special care to our eyes and the eye area. This will keep them in optimal shape until we attain old age.

Category: products

Skin elasticity - what can cosmetics achieve?

To keep the skin smooth and free of wrinkles for as long as possible is the main objective of preventive skin care. Besides hydration and smoothing, skin elasticity is the other essential factor where all depends on. Based on selected examples the following article explains potential influences on skin elasticity and how it can be optimally preserved.

Category: problem skin

Fats and oils in cosmetics - Mother Nature versus petrochemicals?   (long version)

Fats and oils are important ingredients of skin care. The properties of hydrocarbons and silicones are compared with vegetable and synthetic triglycerides. The influences on skin recovery and long term effects are described. The present literature is reviewed from the physiological point of view.

Category: skin protection

Dazzlingly beautiful lips: lip care - ingredients and effects

Lips and eyes communicate charisma and charm and that is the reason why particular attention is paid to their care. Since the characteristics of the lip area are inherently different from the other facial skin we also use specific care products. What are the ingredients and how do they work?

Category: products

Oils and fats in cosmetic products - Mother Nature contra petrochemical industry?

A subject that has launched controversial discussions over and over again is the use of mineral oil based hydrocarbons in cosmetic products. Above all in the cold season it gains importance as the skin is sensitive to cold and dry air and should therefore be protected with re-fattening substances. Where is the difference between oils and waxes of petrochemical origin and natural fats and oils?

Category: skin protection

Shelf life of cosmetics - what makes cosmetic products unstable?

Cosmetic products have a life of their own, all the more the higher the content of physiologically usable skin care substances. Also external influences have to be considered specifically when the products are bottled in jars. In the end, a mix of different influences determines the shelf life of the products. The following article will provide an overview on this issue.

Category: ingredients

Dermopharmacy - decorative cosmetics for problem skin

Decorative cosmetics still leads a shadowy existence in many pharmacies. Wrongfully - as it is desperately needed specifically in the problem skin area in order to reduce the psychological strain of the individuals concerned. The following article describes preparations which form a valuable supplement in the pharmacies' shelves in combination with active care products and a well-founded professional advice.

Category: problem skin

Self-tanning products - a beautiful sun-tan without sun

While fair skin is the ideal of beauty in many countries of the world, the average central-European population rather prefers a tanned complexion. It stands for the idea of a healthy and active life style. As UV radiation however is related to the well-known consequences like premature skin aging and the risk of melanoma, self tanning products have become very popular. An overview on the pros and cons of the different product categories can be found in the following.

Category: products

Skin diagnosis - based on measuring results

The precise diagnosis of the skin condition is essential for a successful cosmetic treatment as even the best product will be useless if it is not matched with the skin type of the customer.

Category: skin diagnosis

Medical Wellness - a powerful combination

Cosmetics - medicine - wellness: an increasing number of intersections and overlappings can be noticed between these disciplines. Cosmetics is spreading its activities into the boundaries of medicine. The field of "medical wellness" fills the gap between medicine and wellness and often has its roots in the traditional folk medicine of different cultures. The following paper explains the term "medical wellness" and describes how the field of cosmetics can play an active part.

Category: anti-aging

Peptides - more than transmitters and hormones

Peptides play a major role in the development of anti aging cosmetics. They occur naturally and are quite often found as messenger proteins and hormones. Also their degradation products, i.e. the amino acids are key players in the field of cosmetic skin care.

Category: special actives

Skin care for cosmeticians - new developments in skin care

The latest amendments in the German Cosmetic Directive (KVO) have shed some light on the ingredients of cosmetic products. As Dr. Hans Lautenschläger explained in his lecture held at the 5th Professional Training on Dermatology and Cosmetics in Munich, declarations regarding the ingredients (INCI) frequently are neglected when selecting a product.

Category: skin protection

Radical scavengers as active agents: facts, new aspects and future perspectives

In cosmetics as well as in medicine active agents against free radicals have ranked among the top-rated substances for quite some years. Every now and then there are new substances on the market which are even more effective in scavenging free radicals. How do radicals come into being, what are their effects and how dangerous are they actually? What is the difference between radicals and free radicals? Quite a few intricate questions which are not too easy to answer!

Category: skin protection

Protect your skin too

Besides all the efforts of caring for the skin of the clients, the skin protection of the cosmeticians should not be neglected. Day in, day out, the cosmetician gets into contact with the products she uses for the treatments. High-quality products are useful which also protect the skin of the cosmetician.

Category: skin protection

Progress in occupational skin protection

The number of occupational dermatoses is increasing although the workplace safety regarding the materials and substances used has constantly been improved. Thus, skin protection at the workplace and an effective skin care become the focal point of interest.

Category: skin protection

Nitrosamines in cosmetic products - risk of skin problems?

For quite some time now print media and radio stations have been informing that a multitude of cosmetic products contain carcinogenic nitrosamines. The reports are based on random sample results of some State Health Agencies in Germany. The point here is whether an already known problem has now become a burning issue again? The following article gives detailed information.

Category: skin protection

Skin protection for the hands of strong men

The acceptance of skin protection and skin care especially designed for activities in humid conditions (e.g. metal industry, construction industry, hairdressers) and workplaces where oils are used (e.g. oil industry, automotive industry, mechanical engineering) among the individuals affected is rather low. Especially in those fields where not really corrosive and acutely irritating or sensitizing materials are used but rather "everyday" substances, a large number of skin diseases has been diagnosed according to the statistics of the professional associations (1).

Category: skin protection

Membrane-containing barrier creams - protecting the skin with skin-related substances

Skin care products should primarily support the protective function of the stratum corneum and, if needed, also assist in the recovery process. Accordingly these products should be called barrier creams; however this technical term rather is used in combination with skin protective products. The following report deals with today's barrier creams and their benefits for the modern skin care.

Category: skin protection

Worth knowing - the cosmetician as a consultant

Specifically in cases of problem skin the cosmetician is predestined to offer comprehensive consultation on skin care and skin treatment after the skin is analyzed. Prerequisite here is detailed information on the products.

Category: beauty institutes

Product variety in the beauty institute

Offering a wide range of different products today has become the recipe for success of the beauty institute. Not only when establishing new beauty institutes but also in general it is recommended to carefully select the products for treatment and sale.

Category: beauty institutes

Preventive care in the beauty institute

The task of the cosmetician is not only to provide a short-term improvement of the skin but also to effectively support the prevention of skin diseases.

Category: beauty institutes

Cosmetic dermatology - dermatological cosmetic

The combination of cosmetic and dermatology offers a variety of opportunities/benefits for clients, patients and institutes/consulting rooms. The cosmetic dermatology or the dermatological cosmetic complements the fields of orthodox medicine and traditional cosmetic and extends their activity field.

Category: beauty institutes

Regeneration of the skin barrier

The objective of regenerating the skin is just as old as cosmetic itself. The decorative cosmetic shows how we would like to look after the regeneration. The caring cosmetic with the active agents at its disposal tries to support the regeneration to revitalize, soothe and protect the neglected, elderly and damaged skin.

Category: anti-aging

Regeneration - the potentials of cosmetic products

In general usage, the term regeneration already is more or less identified with a magic formula against skin aging. Accordingly, there is a large variety of different prescriptions in form of products and treatments on the market. Quite evidently, the aging process of the skin cannot be stopped; however, prevention may contribute to alleviate its symptoms.

Category: anti-aging

Under close scrutiny - phytohormones

Hormones control our bodily functions throughout our entire life. They also have effects on our skin. As hormones have a systemic influence though, they are not allowed in cosmetic products. The research for substances with hormone-like effects proved successful in plants. Detailed information on these specific components which are called vegetable hormones or phytohormones will be provided in the following article.

Category: anti-aging

Corneotherapy and anti-aging

Corneotherapy was coined in the nineties by Professor A.M. Kligman. In his studies he proved that a skin therapy with moisturizers already could achieve clinical effects. Experience has shown now that corneotherapy can also protect the skin against premature aging.

Category: anti-aging

Applied corneotherapy and skin care - guidelines for the anti-aging treatment

Based on the corneotherapeutic treatment founded by Prof. A. Kligman a detailed strategy against premature skin aging is discussed. Specific elements of this strategy are the preservation of the NMF (moisture balance, protection against radicals) as well as the barrier layers, the protection against sun radiation and their consequences, the support of regenerative processes as well as reflections on the fatty acid balance of the skin. The individual care of damaged and problem skin is described in connection with appropriate base creams and corneotherapeutic actives. Treatment processes are accompanied by specific diagnostic techniques to determine the skin condition. The principle of extended "outside-in" therapy (extended corneotherapy) is explained and examples for temporarily effective anti-aging actives are added.

Category: anti-aging

Universal base creams with membrane structure for skin care, skin protection and dermatics

Although the market offers a generous supply of finished products, base creams still play an essential role in pharmaceutical preparations for the individual dermatological treatment. On the contrary: symptoms of sensitive skin, neurodermatitis and a series of other skin problems which altogether are on a steady upward trend, even can be treated individually as the substances which are not tolerated can explicitly be avoided. Thus, the experience of the dermatologist and pharmacist involved can ideally be included in the treatment for the maximum benefit of the patient respectively customer. In addition to that, the knowledge that besides the dermatological and cosmetic active agents, the selected cream base is a deciding factor for a long-term success is increasingly gaining ground.

Category: base creams

Self mixed

KOKO now offers foundations which are individually adapted to customers' needs. The modular system is easy to handle and does not require any specific practical knowledge.

Category: base creams

dermaviduals - modular product systems

Dermaviduals are skin care products which are freshly prepared right on the spot in the beauty institute. This article shows how cosmeticians can prove their skin care competence by offering this individual service.

Category: base creams

Base creams for the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis

According to general considerations about corneotherapy (Albert M. Kligman) the chemical composition and the physical structure of base creams play a major role in supporting the homoeostasis of the skin. 

Category: base creams

Whitening - lightening the skin tone

Pigmentation marks, freckles and reddened skin are frequently felt as a nuisance. As only very few individuals however are endowed with an even skin tone, so called whitening products become increasingly popular.

Category: products

Therapy and wellness in the bathtub

Bathing and balneological products already have a long tradition and still enjoy great popularity. Moreover: even in today's shower age, the wide range and the application of balneological products is still on the rise.

Category: products

Skin cleansing - selecting the appropriate product

Skin cleansing preparations range among the essential skin caring products. They are part of the daily hygiene and a prerequisite for further skin care measures. Hence, there is a great variety of different preparations and applications. The following overview offers assistance in selecting the appropriate product.

Category: products

Re-energizers: lotions - the speedy skin care

Lotions are speedy re-energizers for the skin. Especially when extended parts of the skin require a fast and evenly spreading care they are the best alternative. Nevertheless, lotions are not really a "lightweight" solution.

Category: products

Perspiration and body odor - keeping the emotional smell under control

(Excessive) Perspiration together with the possibly developing body odor may be part of sporting activities, in company however it can be embarrassing. The cosmetic industry offers a wide range of products with antiperspirant and highly effective deodorant properties.

Category: products

Oleogels - what non-aqueous products can accomplish

Today's skin care products mainly are emulsion-based which means that they contain water and an oil respectively lipid phase. In addition there are still products with only an oil phase. Oils but also oleogels belong to this group. They are primarily recommended for problem skins and therefore used in the dermatological cosmetics.

Category: products

Masks - the speedy refreshers

Clients of beauty institutes prefer individual treatments showing quick and visible results. Possible solutions here are masks in combination with effective active agents.

Category: products

Innovative powder products - from urea powder to wrinkle killers

Powders are an essential component of the decorative skin care. In the course of time their composition has changed considerably and besides their application on normal skin, they are also used on problem skin today as well as for the optical reduction of wrinkles. More details are given in the following article.

Category: products

Eye care - new agents against wrinkles

The sensitive eye area demands for an excellent base care and well tolerable actives to balance out fine lines, dark circles below the eyes and weakening elasticity.

Category: products

Energizers - masks and packs

Masks or packs are essential elements of a large variety of cosmetic treatments. Unfortunately, it frequently falls into oblivion that these products in fact are some sort of quick-change artists. By adding different active agent concentrates and base creams, they are able to adapt to the specific needs of the skin.

Category: products

Dermatological cosmetics - linking cosmetics and medicine

The term "dermatological cosmetics" already alludes to the combination of dermatology and skin care. Dermatological cosmetics, what does it actually mean? What is the difference between dermatological and conventional cosmetics? Based on a present-day example the concepts of dermatological skin and beauty care and their compatibility with the existing law will be described in the following.

Category: products

Concentrated agents: sera and ampoules

Quick results, problem solutions, intensive care... these are the keywords connected with sera, ampoules and active agent concentrates to be applied either directly or in form of masks, packs or other special treatments in the beauty institutes.

Category: products

Balneological products - application and benefits

Bathing is very relaxing. It soothes body and soul. And this is the reason why cultivated bathing habits, in the therapeutical field also called balneology or hydrotherapy become increasingly popular again.

Category: products

All-purpose talcum free powder bases with urea

All-purpose powder bases for use in decorative cosmetics, skin care and dermatology are described. Besides covering compounds, such as mineral pigments and physiologically compatible amides, urea plays a major role, particularly in use of powder bases on problem skin.

Category: products

Skin analysis - with the support of modern instruments

The skin analysis as a main component of the cosmetic treatment forms the basis for successful skin-specific concepts. A large supply of different instruments may facilitate the skin diagnosis. However, what are the specific performance features of these instruments?

Category: skin diagnosis

Skin analysis - customer interview to complement measurements

While subjectively rating a cosmetic product the human brain processes a multitude of sensory stimuli. Though, subjective ratings and objective skin analyses taken by measuring devices are not always identical.

Category: skin diagnosis

Instruments for skin analysis

An accurate analysis of the skin type establishes customer confidence, is the basis for a specific skin treatment and promotes the sale of skin care products. Special measuring instruments can optimize the analysis

Category: skin diagnosis

Vitamin K for a healthy and beautiful skin

Vitamin K is an essential nutrient for the human body. Vitamin K belongs to the fat-soluble vitamins and naturally occurs in two different types, i.e. vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 is mainly assimilated through vegetable food whereas vitamin K2 is formed by intestinal bacteria as e.g. Escherichia coli.

Category: special actives

Specific active agents and bases in corneotherapy

The term corneotherapy was coined in the late nineties1) by Professor Albert M. Kligman. The basic idea of corneotherapy is that topically applied substances as e.g. moisturizers and lipids influence the biochemistry and physics in the horny layer as well as subsequent processes in deeper skin layers which again have effects on the constitution of the horny layer.

Category: special actives

Precious load - transport of active agents

Within the field of skin care and dermatology active agents play the most important role. Appropriate transport systems ensure that active agents are transported to the areas where they are really needed.

Category: special actives

Strong effects - phospholipids in cosmetics

Phospholipids are indispensable for the live organism and play an essential role for both health and nutrition due to a great variety of different functions. They also prove to be perfect base substances for cosmetic products.

Category: special actives

Treatment of actinic keratoses with a new olibanum extract

Millions of vacationers deliberately expose themselves to excessive UV radiation. As a result, the risk of UV-related skin damage is rapidly increasing. Sun worshippers thus have to expect an increased risk for actinic keratoses (a carcinoma in situ). Most recent estimates prove that about 8 million Germans suffer from actinic keratoses. There is an estimated prevalence of about 15 percent among individuals over 40 and one out of two of the persons over 60 is affected with such skin lesions.

Category: special actives

Olibanum - embedded in nanoparticles

A substantial increase of inflammatory skin diseases such as neurodermatitis, psoriasis and actinic keratoses but also skin cancer has been observed worldwide. The serious barrier and cornification disorders involved can now be treated with frankincense, the lately discovered cosmetic agent.

Category: special actives

Liposomes

INTRODUCTION: Publications about and patents on liposomes, along with their different chemical components, preparation, and use in skincare products have often been reviewed [1-4]. The reviews do not need any additional comments. Of interest are general questions, such as why liposomes should be used in cosmetics, what functionalities are expected from them, and what advantages they do provide compared with alternative formulations.The properties of the widely used main component of liposomes, phosphatidylcholine, play a key role in answering these questions. Other compounds such as niotensides and ceramides, which are naturally predestined for the preparation of liposomes, are less important today. Niotensides do not offer superior claims, and ceramides are not available in sufficient quantities and qualities at affordable prices.

Category: special actives

High tech agents: new - improved - and more effective?

In skin care products, the essential sales argument on the manufacturers' side and the decisive factor on the part of consumers to buy the product are the active agents contained. Accordingly, the cosmetic industry is continually researching for new and better agents. What are their specific features and what effects do we expect?

Category: special actives

Enzymes - the silent brownies

Enzymes are substances of very special kind. They are the brownies in the metabolism of live organisms as they compose or degrade the substances involved. They take care of almost every single chemical transformation, silently, ecologically and without leaving any waste products. They can also be selectively used in the field of cosmetics.

Category: special actives

Encapsulated substances - the capacity of carrier systems

Liposomes and nanoparticles have a high affinity to the horny layer of the skin due to their composition. With the help of these carrier systems water and oil soluble substances can easier penetrate the skin.

Category: special actives

Corneotherapy - ...more than just a surface application

Experience shows that besides their influence on the release of active agents base creams can have substantial effects of their own.

Category: special actives

Active agents: liposomes, nanoparticles & co

Life can only exist in an atmosphere which provides protection against outside influences. Thus, monocellular living organisms are protected by cell membranes whereas multicellular organisms are provided with an exterior skin whose outermost layer, the epidermis also has a membrane-like structure which together with its specific composition serves as a model for cosmetic and dermatic products.

Category: special actives

Emulsifiers enable mixtures

Emulsifiers are indispensable wherever lipids, oils and waxes are mixed with hydrophilic media with the objective of obtaining a stable mixture over a certain period of time. They are, among others components of food and cleaning agents, lubricants and cosmetics.

Category: ingredients

A closer look on natural agents: facts and future aspects

Natural agents have always been a topical issue and also the object of vigorous advertising campaigns. The general public certainly associates the terms natural and biological with purity, harmlessness and good tolerance. However, not every product labeled with the term natural also contains pure natural ingredients. As usual, there are the little things that always cause trouble and particular attention should be paid to the specific terminology.

Category: ingredients

Additives in cosmetic products

Besides the lipid substances for skin caring purposes and the lipid and water soluble active agents the INCI declaration of a cosmetic product generally lists a variety of further ingredients. They may be categorized with the term "additives" and have various functions.

Category: ingredients

Emulsifiers - looking for alternatives

Emulsifiers stabilize emulsions. Yet, evidence that emulsifiers may cause skin irritations is mounting. While looking for alternatives it was found out that stable creams for a variety of different applications can be produced on the basis of skin-related substances.

Category: ingredients

Shelf life and preservation

Along with the latest amendment of the German Cosmetic Decree (KVO) a new regulation becomes effective. Products with a shelf life of more than 30 months or more have to be labeled with the symbol of an open jar together with the date indicating how long the product may be safely used after opening. The author takes the opportunity to have a closer look at the connections between preservation and shelf life of cosmetic products.

Category: ingredients

Vegetable oils and extracts - essential components

The use of oils and extracts for basic skin care purposes already has a long tradition and still retains its relevance today. Frequently singular substances with defined effect can successfully be isolated, very often however this specific effect is closely related to the extract or respectively the oil as an integral whole or, in other words it results from synergy effects of different substances. More information on the extraction, manufacturing process and properties of fatty and essential oils as well as vegetable extracts is provided in the following.

Category: ingredients

INCI - Declaration

The ingredients of cosmetic products are declared in accordance with INCI standards. Knowing how to read the INCI provides information on the ingredients and gives important clues whether the particular customer can tolerate certain products or whether the cosmetics contain substances which should rather be avoided.

Category: ingredients

Preservatives

Preservatives are added to cosmetics in order to prevent product deterioration and combined with it to avoid any possible health risks involved for the consumer. In the following you will be informed about products which particularly require these additives, about the basics of preservatives and about possible alternatives.

Category: ingredients

Ceramides - lipids with multiple assignments

In combination with other skin components ceramides form a natural barrier in the horny layer. They prevent the dehydration of the skin. There are new products which support the skin-own formation of ceramides.

Category: ingredients

Preservatives - germs et al. under control

Microbiological stability is a must for cosmetic products. Consequently preservatives are among the essential additives in cosmetics. They protect the products against microorganisms during the manufacturing process as well as during storage and application and they also are the deciding factor for the duration of their shelf life.

Category: ingredients

Water and water - just not the same things: water qualities

When discussing active agents in cosmetics, very often the most important one is ignored: water! Professor Albert M. Kligman even speaks of "water dermatology" as an essential element of corneotherapy. In fact the quality of the water significantly influences the skin condition in a positive as well as in a negative way.

Category: ingredients

Free from preservatives

The microbiological stability of a cosmetic product is the prerequisite for its sales capacity.

Category: ingredients

Lipophilic substances - oils and lipids in cosmetic products

Although they apparently fail to show any spectacular effects, oils and lipids belong to the most important ingredients in cosmetic products. From the corneotherapeutic point of view they are right in the focus of current interest: selectively applied they help to regenerate damaged skin.

Category: ingredients

Active agents, the effective skin care - vitamins, oils & more

From A like allantoin to Z like zinc. There is a multitude of active agents on the market either as substances to be used for cosmetics or substances contained in cosmetics. Effects as well as efficacy depend on various factors which will be described in detail in the following article.

Category: ingredients

Quite a lot of different applications - new oils and extracts

An unprecedented number of new oils and extracts is currently introduced into the cosmetic market. To provide some assistance here, Dr. Hans Lautenschlaeger presents an overview on promising substances and their effects.

Category: ingredients

Ingredients - objective information appreciated

There is in-depth coverage on spectacular active agents in cosmetics. By contrast, base substances and additives are rather found in small print, though they give detailed information on tolerance and long-term effects of the product.

Category: ingredients

Emulsions - micro-emulsions - nano-emulsions

Cosmetic products have a multitude of technical terms and it is difficult to keep track of it. On the other hand just a basic overview enables to infer to their practical properties. Taking a look at the microcosm of emulsions is worth the effort.

Category: ingredients

Active agents, the effective skin care - smoothing the skin and providing overall protection

Active agents are a favorite subject of discussions and an important topic of many publications. Above all, the advertising material provides abundant printed information. However, what are the specific features of active agents, how do they work and what are their advantages and disadvantages? All these questions will be answered in the following article.

Category: ingredients

Active agents - the effective skin care: lipids, the basic elements

Lipids play an important role among cosmetic active agents for the skin care. In terms of quantity, they are the most frequently used ingredients of cosmetics besides water. Seen from the historic perspective, skin care actually began with the use of lipids. Depending on geographical regions and culture, olive oil, sesame oil, sperm oil and animal lipids of different origin were the first basic skin care substances.

Category: ingredients

Skin care for the neurodermitic skin - supporting the skin barrier

Dehydrated skin and a high transepidermal water loss (TEWL) are characteristic symptoms of the neurodermitic skin. Especially during the winter season an adequate skin care accompanying the treatment and above all its specific formulation is an important issue.

Category: problem skin

Skin barrier disorders - preventive measures

Skin barrier disorders are a widely spread phenomenon today. Most frequently the symptoms are dry and sensitive skin and serious cases of skin disorders are neurodermatitis, psoriasis and cornification disorders in general.

Category: problem skin

Reddened Skin - what may cause the symptom?

Everyone cares for even skin as it is a symbol for health and cleanness. It's quite a nuisance when red spots appear and even more annoying if their cause is unknown. The following information provides some assistance to detect the causes.

Category: problem skin

Psoriasis - the appropriate care

Psoriasis is a partially hereditary skin condition with intermittent attacks which may be triggered by additional environmental or nutritional factors or by mental stress. An appropriate skin care may relieve its symptoms.

Category: problem skin

Photodamaged skin: sun-bathing and after sun care

Overexposure to UV radiation causes serious long-term skin damage, premature skin aging and may even trigger skin cancer. Even if the infrared light of the sun seems harmless though, it may build up extremely high temperatures in the outermost skin layers and as a consequence also lead to premature skin aging.

Category: problem skin

Neurodermatitis - specific prevention

Neurodermatitis is a major strain for the persons affected, above all due to the permanently dry and frequently itching skin. A well-designed skin care with appropriate products helps to reduce these symptoms.

Category: problem skin

Mixed skin - a skin with two different faces

In the daily practice frequently questions come up regarding the appropriate cosmetic treatment. Mixed skin: What does it actually mean? How can we receive adequate measuring results and what is the best care - all these questions are answered in the following.

Category: problem skin

Good looks, protection and skin care all inclusive: make-up for the problem skin

Make-up literally is cosmetics in the true sense of the word - it enhances the individual appearance. And from time immemorial a multitude of different pigments, dyes and mineral components has been used for this purpose. Protecting and maintaining a healthy skin however has rather been regarded as a medical issue. Today the cosmetic sector covers skin care as well as decorative aspects, and if a combination of both features works in one single product, specifically customers with problem skin will benefit.

Category: problem skin

Irritated skin - skin in a state of turmoil

Irritation - what exactly does it mean? In general the term is explained as an overreaction to an insignificant or even trivial incident. Now, what applies for the area of mental balance may also be extended to the skin. Skin irritations, their causes as well as their treatment will be discussed in the following article.

Category: problem skin

History and current aspects of corneotherapy 1)

The term corneotherapy was coined by A. Kligman. A persistent corneotherapeutic treatment of the disturbed homeostasis as the characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis with appropriate skin care substances may achieve substantial clinical effects. In summary, it can be said that corneotherapy aims at the recovery of the stratum corneum and above all, it improves the function of the skin barrier and subsequently also the overall homeostasis of the skin. For the purposes of a preventive corneotherapy it is essential to avoid skin care products with harmful substances such as irritants and allergens, to select the appropriate skin care substances, to individually adapt the skin care products to the specific skin problems and to possibly change behavioral patterns following a corneotherapeutic consultation. Recent clinical studies have indicated that not only barrier disorders like atopic dermatitis respond to corneotherapy. Also cornification disorders and dermatoses may be treated adjuvantly with success. The studies are based on a therapy with membrane structure products closely related to the chemical and physical structure in the stratum corneum. An important precondition obviously is the presence of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine may be used in membrane creams (barrier creams) and liposomes. Further galenic forms are nanoparticles and oleogels. It depends on the skin analysis and the specific skin problem which galenic form is the most effective treatment for the particular case. Moreover, modular systems allow the addition of pharmaceutical and cosmetic actives. One of the major advantages is the fact that corneotherapy is largely free of the side effects known from topical pharmaceuticals. Preventively applied, corneotherapy may extend the intervals between attacks and reduce or even avoid the use of conventional dermatics.

Category: problem skin

Essential fatty acids - cosmetic from inside and outside

Our body depends on numerous substances which have to be replenished with our daily nutrition. Certain fatty acids are among these essential substances. Deficiencies have a detrimental effect for the human organism and skin.

Category: problem skin

Couperosis - a field for active agent concentrates

Couperosis - a complicated cosmetic topic: quite a few questions regarding its origin and treatment are still waiting for an answer. Just like other problem skins also couperosis demands for a thoroughly balanced skin care. Particularly in the field of supporting prevention skin care plays a significant role and all the more if the skin is susceptible to couperosis or if there is a family history of couperosis cases.

Category: problem skin

Cornification disorders - the adequate skin care

Keratoses of the skin are common public diseases. As a result, also cosmeticians are frequently faced with questions regarding the care of the affected skin. In the following, you will find interesting information on active agents, cream bases as well as cleansing and skin care products for these conditions.

Category: problem skin

Actinic keratoses - an endemic disease?

Millions of vacationers deliberately expose themselves to excessive UV radiation. As a result, the risk of UV-related skin damage is rapidly increasing. Sun worshippers thus have to expect an increased risk for actinic keratoses (a carcinoma in situ). Most recent estimates prove that about 8 million Germans suffer from actinic keratoses. There is an estimated prevalence of about 15 percent among individuals over 40 and one out of two of the persons over 60 is affected with such skin lesions.

Category: problem skin

"Acne caused by too many different moisturizing factors in creams?"

Moisturizing factors in cosmetic products mostly relate to the NMF (natural moisturizing factor) components. 

Category: problem skin

Acne - prevention and care

Acne is one of the most frequent skin problems beauty institutes are confronted with. Acne customers and above all the younger generation among them often go through a personal ordeal and generally have high expectations of a cosmetic treatment.

Category: problem skin

 
 
 
   
 
 
 
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